in order to make sci papers published smoothly, researchers must pay attention to avoid chinglish when translating sci papers. what are the translation skills of sci papers shared by shanghai zhenyun artificial translation agency?
1. writing tense
there are 16 tenses of predicate verbs in english. there are three tenses that are frequently used in english scientific papers: the present tense, the past tense and the future tense. the correct use of verb tenses is the basic skill of scientific research writing. when we write english papers, if we can't choose the tenses correctly, we will often change the meaning of the article, thus affecting the understanding of the reviewers and readers.
how to use tenses correctly in scientific papers should first grasp the following three basic points:
1) general present tense: it is mainly used to describe the objective existence fact without time limit, or to describe the feeling, state, relationship, etc. occurring or existing at the time of writing the paper, or to express gratitude, etc. it is worth noting that, out of respect, all published research results of others, as "previously established knowledge", are generally quoted in the ordinary present tense.
2) general past tense: used to write a description of the author's own work in a paper.
3) general future tense: used for actions or states of existence after writing a thesis. for example, the next research direction is proposed.
2. writing voice
in the translation of abstracts of scientific papers, the most commonly used voice is passive voice.
1) scientific papers often need to introduce objective research process and experimental results which are not transferred by human will. the use of passive voice can better highlight the objectivity of scientific research.
2) the use of passive can also avoid mentioning the actor of the action, which makes the study of action more universal.
3) due to the special structure of passive voice, it has more flexibility in the adjustment of sentence structure, which is conducive to adding phrase structure and expanding sentence information while maintaining the balance and neatness of sentence structure.
3. the most frequently used words in sci papers
sci papers do not require that the papers written be full of literary talent. the key is to express the author's meaning clearly so that others can see it. the common words used in sci papers include gerund, verb, present participle, indefinite article, pronoun, adverb, preposition, etc. therefore, there is no significant difference between words and other ways of writing. however, due to the academic style of academic papers, the use of words in papers is very formal. in the process of writing, don't, can't and won't are very taboo. in addition, due to the habit of writing in chinese, many authors often use the words such as andsoworth and andsoon, which are taboo when writing english papers.
4. english punctuation
there are some differences between chinese and english punctuation marks. for example, there must be no pause sign or book name in english. correspondingly, in english, the paratactic components in the segmented sentences are usually comma. the titles of books and periodicals are usually distinguished in italics. moreover, the ellipsis in english is three points (...) if an ellipsis is followed by a period at the end of a sentence, then four dots ( ), but this is not the case (spaces are required between ellipsis and period).
comma is the most difficult type of punctuation. improper use of comma will change the meaning of a sentence. when expressing important and unimportant information, pay more attention to the use of commas. when you proofread the use of punctuation, pay special attention to the following words: that, which and who; at this time, you should confirm again whether this information is important information or redundant information that can be omitted. if this information is important, do not use commas. if this information is additional and unimportant, a comma must be used.
5. sentence and paragraph coherence and logic
meaning related sentences must be connected by cohesive words, otherwise the sentences will be isolated. cohesive words are words or phrases used to explain the relationship between the meanings of the two sentences.