the translation of bids shall be accurate in language, and the terms and text specifications of bidding documents and bids shall be highly consistent. what are the translation skills shared by shanghai zhenyun artificial translation agency?
1、 literal method
literal translation means literal translation of the original text. the translation produced by this method is basically consistent with the original in terms of word selection, syntax, semantics and pragmatic meaning. however, the use of literal method must be based on the premise that the language and cultural factors in the original text must be basically consistent with the target language. otherwise, it will lead to dead translation and hard translation, which makes the translation extremely unnatural and even distorts the original text.
in the process of translating bids, we often find that in many cases, literal translation of the original text will feel very awkward. sometimes, it doesn't even work. this shows that at this time, the language and cultural factors involved in the original text are quite different from those of the target language, so that they cannot be converted directly according to the face of the text, but should be modified as necessary, that is, some necessary changes and adjustments should be made to the words and syntax in translation, so as to make the translation conform to the norms and habits of the target language, so as to achieve the ultimate goal of reproducing the semantic and pragmatic meaning of the original text. here are just a few examples of the most commonly used flexible skills in science and technology translation:
sometimes, when the translation from the original to the target can not be carried out literally, the meaning of the extended words can be used as the medium of transformation. modern semantics divides word meanings into seven categories: conceptual meaning, connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, emotional meaning, associative meaning, collocation meaning and thematic meaning. the meaning of the extended word should be based on the specific context
2. add words: add necessary words according to the syntax and idiomatic features of the target language.
3. subtraction: make necessary translation according to the syntactic and idiomatic features of the target language.
4. back translation: necessary back translation modifications can make the translation concise and clear.
5. sub translation: when the original sentence is long or difficult to translate into one sentence, it can be translated into several sentences.
6. co translation: the opposite of sub translation (example omitted)
7. reverse order: when the habitual narrative level of the source language and the target language is opposite, they should be translated in reverse order.
3、 conversion method
literal method and flexible method are two basic ways to reproduce semantic meaning. however, in the case of great differences in language and cultural factors between the source language and the target language, if we want to reproduce the pragmatic meaning of the original text, it often goes beyond the functional scope of the literal method and the flexible method, then we must adopt the method of transformation. the skills can be summarized as follows:
a) discard the image of the original text and interpret other pragmatic meanings.
b) change the proposition content of the original text and interpret its pragmatic meaning.
2. domestication: according to the characteristics, habits and culture of the target language, replace the image of the original text, so as to convey its pragmatic meaning more vividly.